Pedestrian and Bicycle Level of Service at Intersections, Roundabouts and Crossings

by Søren Underlien Jensen


Transportation Research Board 92nd Annual Meeting

The Danish Road Directorate sponsored a study to develop methods for objectively quantifying pedestrian and cyclist stated satisfaction with roundabouts, signalized and non-signalized intersections, mid-block crossings, and pedestrian bridges and tunnels (in short: crossings). The results provide a measure of how well urban and rural crossings accommodate pedestrian and bicycle travel.

In order to determine how existing traffic operations, geometric conditions, and other variables affect pedestrian and cyclist stated satisfaction, 180 randomly selected Danes were shown a total of 158 video clips from 95 crossings filmed by a walking pedestrian and a riding cyclist. Respondents rated crossings on a six-point scale ranging from very dissatisfied to very satisfied. This resulted in 3,023 pedestrian and 3,998 cyclist ratings. Crossings and video clips were described by about 300 variables.

Pedestrian and cyclist satisfaction models were developed using cumulative logit regression of ratings and variables. The models include variables, which relate significantly (p ≤ 0.05) to the satisfaction ratings. Variables such as type, width and height of pedestrian and bicycle facility, length of crossing, size of roundabout, width of roadway, traffic volume, waiting time and speed limit significantly influence the level of satisfaction.

Models return percentage splits of the six levels of satisfaction. These splits are then transformed into a level of service (LOS). The models provide traffic planners and others the capability to rate crossings with respect to pedestrian and cyclist satisfaction, and may be used in the processes of evaluating existing, designing new or redesigning existing crossings.

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